Pacemakers are medical devices used to treat bradycardia, including atrioventricular block and sick sinus syndrome.
With recent models becoming more compact and weighing as little as 20-30g, implant surgery causes almost no disruption to daily life.
Although a wide variety of products is available from a range of companies, the important thing is to select the optimal model for the type of bradycardia and patient condition.
ICDs are medical devices intended to terminate ventricular fibrillation, tachycardia and other types of lethal arrhythmia.
The mainstream fifth-generation chest-implantable ICD is the dual-chamber type, which delivers electrical stimulation to both the ventricle and the atrium.
These are not only extremely effective in cases of ventricular fibrillation, one cause of sudden death, but because recent models feature advanced pacing functions, they are also in the spotlight as anti-arrhythmia devices, able to handle incidents of both bradycardia and tachycardia.
These catheters are used in cardiac electrophysiology tests essential to diagnosing arrhythmia and evaluating drug efficacy.
Catheters are available in either fixed-curve (shaped to fit the anatomical feature within a patient) or steerable (adjustable) types, with a wide range of variations in size and number of electrodes (from four to more than 64).
Usability and stiffness vary slightly by manufacturer and product, and each user will have his or her own preference.
These catheters are used in high frequency catheter ablation, a radical treatment for tachyarrhythmia. In high frequency catheter ablation, electrodes at the tip of the catheter emit a high-frequency current that is used to cauterize areas that may cause tachycardia. This is why ablation catheters are designed with temperature sensors to constantly monitor the temperature of the area being treated.